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The Impact of scaffolding on EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension

A THESIS SUBMITED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (TEFL)

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توضیحات

ABSTRACT

Thepurpose of this study was to investigate the impact of scaffolding on Reading comprehension ability of intermediate EFL learners. To fulfill this purpose 95 language learners studied at Jihad Daneshgahi short-term education center considered as the participants. 47 students assigned as the control group and 48 students assigned as the experimental groups. First of all the piloted PET test was applied in order to homogenize the participants in regard to their General English and reading comprehension in particular. After assuring of this homogeny of students, scaffolding (modeling) applied for the experimental group and the scanning and skimming were used for control groups. After running these four classes, another sample of piloted PET test was administered for both control and experimental group. The results showed that the scaffolding had no any significant effect on reading comprehension of intermediate EFL learners.

Table of Content

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                          viii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                           ix

Chapter I : Background and Purpose                                                              1

1.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................2

1.2   Statement of the Problem..................................................................................................7

1.3 Statement of the Research Question...................................................................................12

1.4 Statement of the Research Hypothesis...............................................................................12

1.5 Definition of Key Terms....................................................................................................13

     1.5.1 Reading .....................................................................................................................13

   1.5.2 Reading comprehension ............................................................................................13

     1.5.3 Scaffolding ................................................................................................................14

1.6 Significance of the Study ..................................................................................................15

1.7 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study.......................................................................17

     1.7.1 Limitations of the study ............................................................................................17

     1.7.2. Delimitations of the study.........................................................................................17

CHAPTER II : Review of the Related Literature                                       20

2.1. Reading Comprehension...................................................................................................21

2.2. Reading..............................................................................................................................23

     2.2.1. Models of Reading....................................................................................................24

            2.2.1.1. Bottom-up Models...........................................................................................25

            2.2.1.2. Top-down Models...........................................................................................25

         2.2.1.3. Interactive Models............................................................................................26

     2.2.2. Types of Reading......................................................................................................26

            2.2.2.1. Extensive Reading..........................................................................................26

            2.2.2.2. Intensive Reading...........................................................................................27

            2.2.2.3. Silent Reading................................................................................................28

     2.2.3. Reasons for Reading.................................................................................................29

     2.2.4. Importance of Reading.............................................................................................30

     2.2.5. Importance of Teaching Reading.............................................................................31

     2.2.6. Process vs. Product of Reading................................................................................32

2.3. Good vs. Poor Readers.....................................................................................................32

2.4. Schema Theory.................................................................................................................35

2.5. Inferencing........................................................................................................................36

     2.5.1. The Difference between Reasoning and Inferencing................................................37

     2.5.2. Types of Inferences...................................................................................................37

2.6. Scaffolding and Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): History of the Concept...........38

2.7. ZPD in the Classroom.......................................................................................................42

2.8. Learning from a Sociocultural Perspective.......................................................................43

2.9. The Mind and Scaffolding................................................................................................44

2.10. Educational Scaffolding: an Instructional Technique ...................................................45

2.11. Concepts Embedded in Scaffolding...............................................................................47

2.12. Self-scaffolding..............................................................................................................48

2.13. Contexts of Scaffolding..................................................................................................49

2.14. Successful vs. Inefficient of Scaffolding........................................................................51

2.15. Macro and Micro Focuses on Tasks in Scaffolding.......................................................52

2.16. Scaffolding and Good Teaching.....................................................................................52

2.17. Effective Scaffolded Instruction.....................................................................................53

2.18. Guidelines for Effective Scaffolding..............................................................................54

2.19. Types of Instructional Scaffolding to Use with English Learners..................................55

2.20. Challenges and Benefits of Scaffolding..........................................................................57

Chapter III : Methodology                                                                              60

3.1. Participants........................................................................................................................61

3.2. Instrumentation .................................................................................................................61

     3.2.1. Language proficiency test.........................................................................................61

     3.2.2. The reading posttest..................................................................................................64

     3.2.3. Instructional Material................................................................................................65

3.3. Procedure ..........................................................................................................................65

     3.3.1. Piloting the PET Test................................................................................................65

     3.3.2. Homogenizing the Participants.................................................................................66

     3.3.4. The Treatment...........................................................................................................66

   3.3.5. Administration of the Reading Post-Test..................................................................68

3.4. Design...............................................................................................................................69

3.5. Data analysis.....................................................................................................................69

 

Chapter IV: Results and Discussions                                                             70

4.1.Introduction........................................................................................................................71

4.2.Results of Data Analyses....................................................................................................71

4.3 Discussions.........................................................................................................................81

Chapter V : Conclusion and Pedagogical Implications                                86

5.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................87

5.2. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................87

5.3. Pedagogical Implications..................................................................................................88

5.4. Suggestions for Further Research.....................................................................................89

References                                                                                                        

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