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The Comparative Impact of Competitive and Cooperative Content-Based Instruction on EFL Learners Reading and Writing

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (TEFL)

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توضیحات

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was an investigation of the comparative impact of cooperative and competitive content-based instruction on EFL learners’ reading comprehension and writing. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 60 female students of SAMA School of Mashad were selected from among a total number of 90 based on their performance on the KET test and randomly put into two experimental groups. The same content was taught to both groups during 12 sessions with the different methods of competitive and cooperative teaching being used in each class. A posttest (a reading and writing section of another KET) was administered at the end of the treatment to both groups and their mean scores on the test were compared through an independent samples t-test and an ANCOVA. The results led to the rejection of both null hypotheses with the cooperative method of instruction being more effective on EFL learners’ reading comprehension and writing.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABSTRACT                                                                                      ii                                  

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                 iv

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES                                               vii

 

CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE                             1

1.1. Introduction                                                                            2

1.2. Statement of the Problem                                                       7

1.3. Statement of the Research Questions                                      8

1.4. Statement of the Research Hypotheses                                   9

1.5. Definition of Key Terms                                                         9

1.5.1. Reading                                                                           9

1.5.2. Writing                                                                           9

1.5.3. Content-Based Instruction                                           10

1.5.4. Cooperative Learning                                                   10

1.5.5. Competitive Learning                                                   11                                                                            

1.6. Significance of the Study                                                      11      

1.7. Limitations and Delimitation                                                12

 

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE     14

2.1. Introduction                                                                          15

2.2. Content-Based Instruction                                                    16

2.2.1. Theory Behind Content-Based Instruction                   18

2.2.2. Content-Based Instruction: Different Approaches       20

2.2.2.1. Sheltered Model                                                20

2.2.2.2. Adjunct Model                                                  21

2.2.2.3. Theme-Based Model                                         21

2.3. Cooperative Method of Teaching                                         22

2.3.1. History                                                                          22

2.3.2. Types                                                                            25

2.3.3. Elements                                                                       27

2.3.4. Cooperative Learning Techniques                                29

2.3.4.1. Think Pair Share                                              29

2.3.4.2. Jigsaw                                                               30

2.3.4.3. Jigsaw II                                                            30

2.3.4.4. Reverse Jigsaw                                                  30

2.3.4.5. Reciprocal Teaching                                         31

2.3.4.6. The Williams                                                     31

2.3.4.7. STAD                                                                31

2.3.5. Research Supporting Cooperative Learning                32

2.3.6. Benefits and applicability of cooperative Learning      32

2.3.7. Limitations                                                                   35

2.3.8. Cooperative Goal Structures                                        37

2.3.9. Theoretical Influences of CL                                        39

2.3.10. Theoretical Underlying CL                                        40

2.3.10.1. Vygotskian Perspective                                   40                                                                        

2.3.10.2. Piagetian Perspective                                      41

2.3.10.3. Bandura's Social Learning Theory                 43

2.3.11. CL Methods                                                                44

2.3.12. Elements of CL                                                           45

2.4. Competitive Method of Teaching                                            46

2.4.1. Competitive Goal Structures                                        47

2.4.2. Individualistic Goal Structures                                    49

2.4.3. Personality Traits                                                         50

2.5. Writing                                                                                    52

2.5.1. Importance of Writing in History                                 52

2.5.2. Goals and Significance of Writing                                55

2.5.3. Approaches to Teaching Writing                                  58

2.5.3.1. Product-Based Approach                                  58

2.5.3.2. Process-Based Approach                                  60

2.5.3.3. Genre-Based Approach                                     63

2.5.4. Writing Process                                                            64

2.5.4.1. Planning (Pre-writing)                                     66

2.5.4.1.1. Brainstorming                                           66

2.5.4.1.2. Clustering                                                 67

2.5.4.2. Free Writing                                                     67

2.5.4.3. Drafting                                                             68

2.5.4.4. Revising                                                             68

2.5.4.5. Editing                                                              69                                                                          

2.5.4.6. Providing Feedback                                          70

2.6. Reading                                                                                   71

2.6.1. Phonemic Awareness                                                    71

2.6.2. Balanced Approach and Code-Emphasis                     73

2.6.2.1. DRA: A Balanced Approach Assessment          74

2.6.3.2. DIBELS: A Code Emphasis Approach Assessment

                                                                                        76

CHAPTER III: METHOD                                                             80

3.1. Introduction                                                                            81         

3.2. Participants                                                                          81

3.3. Instrumentations and Materials                                           82

3.3.1. Tests                                                                              82

          3.3.1.1. Key English Test (KET)                                  82                                                  

          3.3.1.2. Posttest                                                            85

3.3.2. Materials                                                                       85

          3.3.2.1. Textbooks                                                        85

          3.3.2.2. Dictionary                                                       86

3.4. Procedure                                                                             86

3.4. Procedure                                                                             84

3.5. Design                                                                                   90

3.6. Statistical Analyses                                                               90      

CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                             92

4.1. Introduction                                                                          93

4.2. Participant Selection                                                             93

4.2.1. Descriptive Statistics of the KET Piloting                       94

4.2.2. Descriptive Statistics of the KET Administration        96

4.2.3. Dividing the Participants into Two Groups                  97                                                    

4.3. Posttest                                                                               103

4.3.1. Reading Posttest                                                         103

4.3.2. Writing Posttest                                                          104        

4.4.Testing the Null Hypotheses                                                  105

4.4.1. Testing the First Null Hypothesis                               105    

4.4.2. Testing the Second Null Hypothesis                           106          

4.3. Posttest                                                                               103

4.4.Testing the Null Hypotheses                                                  105

4.5. Discussion                                                                            111

 

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND PEDAGOGICAL               114 IMPLICATIONS                                                                                                        

5.1. Introduction                                                                       115

5.2. Restatement of the Problem                                               115

5.3. Pedagogical Implications                                                    117

5.3.1. Implication for EFL Teachers                                    117

5.3.2. Implication for EFL Syllabus Designers                    118

5.4. Suggestions for Further Research                                      118

 

REFERENCES                                                                             120

 

APPENDICES                                                                              132

Appendix A: Sample KET for Homogenization                            133

Appendix B: Writing Rubric                                                        145

Appendix C: Posttest

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